Distribution by Township

 

Select the common name to view a distribution map of each species in Maine by township.  Explanations of record types follow:

Confirmable Records: These are records based on a specimen (voucher) or a photograph. Only records of a species with a photograph that clearly show all the characters required to identify the individual to species were used in this study. Confirmable records include both recent and historical (prior to 1974; see below) material. Photographic records of species that require examination of genitalia or close examination of color patterns of the upper and lower surfaces for proper identification to species were not included in this study (e.g. Papilio glaucus, Phyciodes tharos, and many skippers). 

Unconfirmable Records: These are records for which no specimens exist or the location of specimens is not known. Included in this category are the following types of records: Sight Records. This represents an observation of a species by a qualified observer. Only species where field identification to species is clearly possible and where all important field characters were visible to the observer are included. Species that require examination of genitalia or close examination of color patterns of upper and lower surfaces, and or antennae for identification to species were not used as sight records in this study (e.g. Papilio glaucus, Phyciodes tharos, and many skippers). Handled Records. This represents an observation of a species by a qualified observer where the specimen was collected, examined to properly determine it to species, and then released. Species that require examination of genitalia for determination to species (some Erynnis species) were not included as handled records in this study. Literature Records. These are records published in the literature where the location of the specimens is not known. Correspondence Records. These are records based on correspondence, such as letters to the Lepidopterists Society Zone Coordinators giving data for inclusion in the Season Field Summary (often only a fraction of the data included in many correspondences is actually published in the field summaries).

Historical Records: These include confirmable records of species occurrences prior to 1974. This is the date of the most recent and comprehensive annotated checklist of the butterflies of Maine by Brower (1974). 

Recent Records: These include all confirmed records of species occurrences from 1974 to 2016. Bolded records indicate new species added to the state list during the survey period.

Scientific Name

Subspecies

Common Name

 

Family Hesperiidae

Skippers

Epargyreus clarus (Cramer) Silver-spotted Skipper
Thorybes pylades (Scudder)  Northern Cloudywing
Thorybes bathyllus (J. E. Smith) Southern Cloudywing
Urbanus proteus (Linnaeus) Long-tailed Skipper
Erynnis icelus (Scudder & Burgess) Dreamy Duskywing
Erynnis brizo (Boisduval & LeConte) Sleepy Duskywing
Erynnis juvenalis (Fabricius) Juvenal’s Duskywing
Erynnis baptisiae (Forbes) Wild Indigo Duskywing
Erynnis persius (Scudder) Persius Duskywing
Pholisora catullus (Fabricius) Common Sootywing
Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas) mandon (W. H. Edwards) Arctic Skipper
Hylephilia phyleus  (Drury) Fiery Skipper
Ancyloxypha numitor (Fabricius) Least Skipper
Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer) European Skipper
Hesperia comma (Linnaeus) laurentina (Lyman) Laurentian Skipper
Hesperia leonardus Harris Leonard’s Skipper
Hesperia metea Scudder Cobweb Skipper
Hesperia sassacus Harris Indian Skipper
Polites peckius (W. Kirby) Peck’s Skipper
Polites themistocles (Latreille) Tawny-edged Skipper
Polites origines (Fabricius) Crossline Skipper
Polites mystic (W. H. Edwards) Long Dash Skipper
Wallengrenia egeremet (Scudder) Northern Broken Dash
Pompeius verna (W. H. Edwards) Little Glassywing Skipper
Anatrytone logan (W. H. Edwards) Delaware Skipper
Poanes hobomok (Harris) Hobomok Skipper
Poanes massasoit (Scudder) Mulberry Wing
Poanes viator (W. H. Edwards) zizaniae (Shapiro) Broadwinged Skipper
Euphyes bimacula (Grote & Robinson) Two-spotted Skipper
Euphyes conspicuus (Edwards) Black Dash Skipper
Atryonopsis hianna (Scudder) Dusted Skipper
Euphyes vestris (Boisduval) metacomet (Harris) Dun Skipper
Amblyscirtes hegon (Scudder) Pepper & Salt Skipper
Amblyscirtes vialis (W. H. Edwards) Common Roadside Skipper
   

Family Papilionidae

Swallowtails

Battus philenor (Linnaeus) Pipevine Swallowtail
Papilio polyxenes Fabricius asterius (Stoll) Black Swallowtail
Papilio glaucus Linnaeus Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio canadensis Rothschild & Jordan Canadian Tiger Swallowtail
Papilio troilus Linnaeus Spicebush Swallowtail
Papilio cresphontes Cramer Giant Swallowtail
Papilio brevicauda  Saunders gaspeensis McDunnough Short-tailed Swallowtail
   

Family Pieridae

Sulphurs & Whites

Pontia protodice (Boisduval & LeConte) Checkered White
Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus)   Large White
Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) Cabbage White
Pieris oleracea Harris Mustard White
Colias philodice Godart Clouded Sulphur
Colias eurytheme (Boisduval) Alfalfa Butterfly
Colias eurytheme x philodice Hybrid Sulfur
Colias interior Scudder Pink-edged Sulphur
Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus) Cloudless Sulphur
Phoebis philea (Linnaeus) Orange-barred Sulphur
Phoebis agarithe Boisduval Large Sulphur
Eurema lisa (Boisduval & LeConte) Little Sulphur
   

Family Lycaenidae

Hairstreaks, Blues, Coppers, & Harvesters

Subfamily Miletinae

Harvesters

Feniseca tarquinius (Fabricius) Harvester
   

Subfamily Lycaeninae

Hairstreaks, Blues, & Coppers

Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus) hypophlaeas Boisduval; not americana Harris American Copper
Lycaena hyllus (Cramer) Bronze Copper
Lycaena epixanthe (Boisduval & LeConte) Bog Copper
Lycaena dorcas (W. Kirby) claytoni Brower Clayton’s Copper
Callophrys hesseli (Rawson & Ziegler) Hessel’s Hairstreak
Callophrys gryneus (Hübner) "Olive" Juniper Hairstreak
Callophrys augustinus (Westwood) Brown Elfin
Callophrys polios (Cook & Watson) Hoary Elfin
Callophrys irus (Godart) Frosted Elfin
Callophrys henrici (Grote & Robinson) Henry’s Elfin
Callophrys lanoraieensis (Sheppard) Bog Elfin
Callophrys niphon (Hübner) clarki (T. N. Freeman) Eastern Pine Elfin
Callophrys eryphon (Boisduval) Western Pine Elfin
Satyrium titus (Fabricius) Coral Hairstreak
Satyrium acadica (W. H. Edwards) Acadian Hairstreak
Satyrium edwardsii (Grote & Robinson) Edward's Hairstreak
Satyrium calanus (Hübner) falacer (Godart) Banded Hairstreak
Satyrium liparops (LeConte) strigosum (Harris) Striped Hairstreak
Strymon melinus (Hübner) Grey Hairstreak
Erora laeta (W. H. Edwards) Early Hairstreak
Cupido comyntas (Godart) Eastern Tailed Blue
Cupido amyntula (Boisduval) maritima (LeBlanc) Western Tailed Blue
Celastrina "ladon" (Cramer) (scaled population) New England Azure
Celastrina neglecta (W. H. Edwards) Summer Azure
Celastrina serotina (Pavulaan & Wright) Cherry Gall Azure
Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Doubleday) couperi Grote Silvery Blue
Plebejus idas (Linnaeus) empetri (T. N. Freeman) Crowberry Blue
Plebejus idas (Linnaeus) scudderri Northern Blue
Plebejus melissa (W. H. Edwards) samuelis Nabokov Karner Blue
Plebejus saepiolus (Boisduval) amica (W. H. Edwards) Greenish Blue
   

Family Nymphalidae

Brushfoots, Monarchs, Satyrs

Subfamily Libytheinae

Snouts

Libytheana carinenta (Cramer) bachmanii (Kirtland) Eastern Snout
   

Subfamily Danainae

Monarchs or Milkweed Butterflies

Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) Monarch
   

Subfamily Heliconiinae

Fritillaries

Euptoieta claudia (Cramer) Variegated Fritillary
Speyeria cybele (Fabricius) Great Spangled Fritillary
Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius) Aphrodite Fritillary
Speyeria idalia (Drury) Regal Fritillary
Speyeria atlantis (W. H. Edwards) Atlantis Fritillary
Boloria eunomia (Esper) dawsoni (Barnes & McDunnough) Bog Fritillary
Boloria selene (Denis & Schiffermüller) Two poorly differentiated subspecies occur in Maine; myrina (Cramer) in the southwest, and atrocostalis (Huard) in the north.  A broad blend zone occurs across central Maine. Silver-bordered Fritillary
Boloria bellona (Fabricius) Meadow Fritillary
Boloria frigga (Thunberg) saga (Staudinger) Frigga Fritillary
Boloria chariclea (Schneider) grandis (Barnes & McDunnough) Purple Lesser Fritillary
   

Subfamily Nymphalinae

Checkerspots, Tortoiseshells, Commas, & Ladies

Chlosyne nycteis (Doubleday) Silvery Checkerspot
Chlosyne harrisii (Scudder) Harris’s Checkerspot
Phyciodes tharos (Drury) Pearl Crescent
Phyciodes cocyta (Cramer) Northern Pearl Crescent
Phyciodes batesii (Reakirt) Tawny Crescent
Euphydryas phaeton (Drury) Baltimore Checkerspot
Junonia coenia Hübner Common Buckeye
Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius) Question Mark
Polygonia comma (Harris) Eastern Comma
Polygonia satyrus (W. H. Edwards) Satyr Comma
Polygonia faunus (W. H. Edwards) Green Comma
Polygonia gracilis (Grote & Robinson) Hoary Comma
Polygonia progne (Cramer) Grey Comma
Nymphalis vaualbum (Dennis & Schiffermüller) Compton Tortoiseshell
Nymphalis milberti (Godart) Milbert’s Tortoiseshell
Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus) Mourning Cloak
Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) Red Admiral
Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus) Painted Lady
Vanessa virginiensis (Drury) American Lady
Limenitis arthemis (Drury) The northern limit of the blend zone between the subspecies L.a. astyanax (Fabricius) (Red Spotted Purple) and L. arthemis occurs in southwestern Maine where some individuals may show reduced white banding on the wings and rare individuals may closely resemble the Red Spotted Purple phenotype.  

White Admiral  

 

Red Spotted Purple

 

Red Spotted Purple / White Banded Intermediate

Limenitis archippus (Cramer) Viceroy
   

Subfamily Satyrinae

Satyrs & Arctics

Enodia anthedon A. H. Clark Northern Pearly-Eye
Satyrodes eurydice (Linnaeus) Eyed Brown
Satyrodes appalachia (R. L. Chermock) Appalachian Brown
Megisto cymela (Cramer) Little Wood Satyr
Coenonympha tullia (Hübner) inornata W. H. Edwards Inornate Ringlet
Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius) In southwestern Maine is subspecies alope (Fabricius), which has a well-developed yellowish to orange patch on the forewing. In northern Maine is subspecies nephele (Kirby), which lacks the forewing patch.   A broad blend zone occurs between these two subspecies in southern and coastal Maine as far east as Calais producing phenotypes of intermediate appearance.

Common Wood Nymph

alope phenotype

nephele phenotype

intermediate phenotype

Oeneis jutta (Hübner) ascerta (Masters & Sorensen) Jutta Arctic
Oeneis polixenes (Fabricius) katahdin (Newcomb) Katahdin Arctic