Flight Periods

Flight period histograms for each species may be viewed by selecting the common name below.  Histograms are based on modern record dates (1996 to present) unless there are no modern records (histogram will be annotated accordingly).  The interactive phenology tool will also display flight periods and allow the comparison of several species simultaneously.       PHENOLOGY TOOL1

Scientific Name Subspecies Common Name 1st Date Last Date
Family Hesperiidae   Skippers    
Epargyreus clarus (Cramer)   Silver-spotted Skipper 17-May 30-Aug
Urbanus proteus (Linnaeus) *   Long-tailed Skipper 19-Aug 21-Aug
Thorybes pylades (Scudder)   Northern Cloudywing 21-May 20-Jul
Thorybes bathyllus (J. E. Smith)   Southern Cloudywing 1-Jun 14-Jun
Erynnis icelus (Scudder & Burgess)   Dreamy Duskywing 7-May 25-Jul
Erynnis baptisiae  (Forbes) *   Wild Indigo Duskywing 22-Apr 27-Sep
Erynnis brizo (Boisduval & LeConte)   Sleepy Duskywing 2-May 2-Jun
Erynnis juvenalis (Fabricius)   Juvenal’s Duskywing 24-Apr 11-Jul
Pholisora catullus (Fabricius)   Common Sootywing 18-Aug 18-Aug
Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas) mandon (W. H. Edwards) Arctic Skipper 13-May 17-Jul
Ancyloxypha numitor (Fabricius)   Least Skipper 30-May 27-Sep
Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer)   European Skipper 5-Jun 20-Aug
Hylephila phyleus (Drury) *   Fiery Skipper 1-Aug 9-Aug
Hesperia comma (Linnaeus) laurentina (Lyman) Laurentian Skipper 27-Jul 16-Sep
Hesperia leonardus Harris   Leonard’s Skipper 5-Aug 13-Sep
Hesperia metea Scudder   Cobweb Skipper 13-May 11-Jun
Hesperia sassacus Harris   Indian Skipper 21-May 15-Jul
Polites peckius (W. Kirby)   Peck’s Skipper 21-May 8-Oct
Polites themistocles (Latreille)   Tawny-edged Skipper 21-May 20-Sep
Polites origenes (Fabricius)   Crossline Skipper 10-Jun 25-Sep
Polites mystic (W. H. Edwards)   Long Dash Skipper 30-May 15-Sep
Wallengrenia egeremet (Scudder)   Northern Broken Dash 18-Jun 14-Aug
Pompeius verna (W. H. Edwards)   Little Glassywing Skipper 15-Jun 3-Aug
Anatrytone logan (W. H. Edwards)   Delaware Skipper 30-Jun 7-Aug
Poanes hobomok (Harris)   Hobomok Skipper 4-Apr 12-Aug
Poanes massasoit (Scudder) *   Mulberry Wing 5-Jul 13-Aug
Poanes viator (W. H. Edwards) zizaniae (Shapiro) Broadwinged Skipper 2-Jul 14-Aug
Euphyes bimacula (Grote & Robinson)   Two-spotted Skipper 6-Jun 24-Jul
Euphyes conspicua (W. H. Edwards) *   Black Dash 3-Jul 13-Aug
Euphyes vestris (Boisduval) metacomet (Harris) Dun Skipper 20-Jun 3-Sep
Amblyscirtes hegon (Scudder)   Pepper & Salt Skipper 26-May 11-Jul
Amblyscirtes vialis (W. H. Edwards)   Common Roadside Skipper 5-May 26-Jul
Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder) *   Dusted Skipper 30-May 20-Jun
Panoquina ocola (W.H. Edwards) *   Ocola Skipper 17-Sep 17-Sep
Family Papilionidae   Swallowtails    
Battus philenor (Linnaeus)   Pipevine Swallowtail 28-Sep 29-Sep
Papilio polyxenes Fabricius asterius (Stoll) Black Swallowtail 1-May 10-Sep
Papilio brevicauda Saunders * gaspeensis McDunnough Short-tailed Swallowtail  NA  NA
Papilio glaucus Linnaeus   Eastern Tiger Swallowtail 13-Jun 2-Sep
Papilio canadensis Rothschild & Jordan   Canadian Tiger Swallowtail 30-Apr 12-Aug
Papilio troilus Linnaeus   Spicebush Swallowtail 11-Jul 13-Aug
Papilio cresphontes Cramer   Giant Swallowtail 1-Aug 5-Set
Family Pieridae   Sulphurs and Whites    
Pontia protodice (Boisduval & LeConte)   Checkered White 9-Aug 9-Aug
Pieris rapae (Linnaeus)   Cabbage White 17-Mar 26-Oct
Pieris oleracea Harris   Mustard White 5-May 7-Sep
Colias philodice Godart   Clouded Sulphur  1-May 7-Nov
Colias eurytheme (Boisduval)   Alfalfa Butterfly 15-May 14-Nov
Colias interior Scudder laurentina Scudder Pink-edged Sulphur 10-Jun 18-Sep
Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus)  eubule (Linnaeus) Cloudless Sulphur 19-Aug 19-Sep
Phoebis philea (Linnaeus)   Orange-barred Sulphur Aug Aug
Phoebis agarithe Boisduval  maxima Neumoegen Large Orange Sulphur 3-Sep 3-Sep
Pyrisitia lisa (Boisduval & LeConte)   Little Sulphur 12-Jun 24-Aug
Family Lycaenidae   Hairstreaks, Blues, Coppers, and Harvesters    
Subfamily Miletinae   Harvesters    
Feniseca tarquinius (Fabricius)   Harvester 13-May 30-Aug
Subfamily Lycaeninae   Hairstreaks, Blues, and Coppers    
Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus) hypophlaeas Boisduval American Copper 10-May 22-Oct
Lycaena hyllus (Cramer)   Bronze Copper 10-Jun 7-Oct
Lycaena epixanthe (Boisduval & LeConte) phaedra (Hall) Bog Copper2 24-Jun 22-Aug
Lycaena epixanthe (Boisduval & LeConte) michiganensis Rawson Bog Copper2 24-Jun 22-Aug
Lycaena dorcas (W. Kirby)   Clayton’s Copper  21-Jul 20-Sep
Mitoura hesseli Rawson & Ziegler   Hessel’s Hairstreak 14-May 6-Jun
Mitoura gryneus (Hübner)   Olive Hairstreak 16-May 28-May
Incisalia augustinus (Westwood)   Brown Elfin 13-Apr 26-Jun
Incisalia polios Cook & Watson   Hoary Elfin 29-Apr 12-Jun
Incisalia henrici (Grote & Robinson)   Henry’s Elfin 5-May 21-Jun
Incisalia lanoraieensis Sheppard   Bog Elfin 5-May 10-Jun
Incisalia niphon (Hübner) clarki (T. N. Freeman) Eastern Pine Elfin 16-Apr 20-Jul
Incisalia eryphon (Boisduval)   Western Pine Elfin 12-May 9-Jun
Satyrium titus (Fabricius)   Coral Hairstreak 2-Jul 6-Aug
Satyrium acadica (W. H. Edwards)   Acadian Hairstreak 3-Jul 9-Aug
Satyrium edwardsii (Grote & Robinson)   Edwards’ Hairstreak 10-Jul 29-Jul
Satyrium calanus (Hübner) falacer (Godart) Banded Hairstreak 19-Jun 3-Sep
Satyrium liparops (LeConte) strigosa (T. Harris) Striped Hairstreak 4-Jul 21-Aug
Strymon melinus (Hübner) humuli (T. Harris) Grey Hairstreak 15-May 27-Sep
Erora laeta (W. H. Edwards)   Early Hairstreak 18-May 22-Jun
Cupido comyntas (Godart)   Eastern Tailed Blue 13-May 13-Oct
Cupido amyntula (Boisduval) maritima (LeBlanc) Western Tailed Blue 20-Jun 10-Jul
Celastrina lucia (W. Kirby)3 lucia (W. Kirby) Northern Azure2 20-Apr 11-Sep
Celastrina lucia (W. Kirby)3 serotina  (Pavulaan & Wright) Cherry Gall Azure2 20-Apr 11-Sep
Celastrina near ladon (Cramer, 1780) 4 * “New England Azure” 16-Apr 7-May
Celastrina neglecta (W. H. Edwards)   Summer Azure 10-May 26-Sep
Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Doubleday) couperi Grote Silvery Blue 26-Apr 17-Jul
Plebejus idas (Linnaeus) empetri T. Freeman Crowberry Blue 27-Jun 24-Jul
Plebejus idas (Linnaeus) scuderrii (W.H. Edwards) * Northern Blue   13-Jul   13-Jul
Plebejus saepiolus (Boisduval) amica (W. H. Edwards) Greenish Blue 18-May 15-Jul
Family Nymphalidae   Brushfoots, Monarchs, Satyrs    
Subfamily Libytheinae   Snouts    
Libytheana carinenta (Cramer) bachmanii (Kirtland) Eastern Snout 10-Jul 2-Aug
Subfamily Danainae   Monarchs or Milkweed Butterflies    
Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus)   Monarch 8-Jun 25-Oct
Subfamily Heliconiinae   Fritillaries    
Euptoieta claudia (Cramer)   Variegated Fritillary 21-May 30-Oct
Speyeria cybele (Fabricius) cybele (Fabricius) Great Spangled Fritillary2 16-Jun 3-Oct
Speyeria cybele (Fabricius) novascotiae (McDunnough) Great Spangled Fritillary2  16-Jun  3-Oct
Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius) aphrodite (Fabricius) Aphrodite Fritillary2 27-Jun 25-Sep
Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius) winni (Gunder) Aphrodite Fritillary2 27-Jun 25-Sep
Speyeria idalia (Drury)   Regal Fritillary 6-Jul 3-Aug
Speyeria atlantis (W. H. Edwards)   Atlantis Fritillary 4-Jun 13-Sep
Boloria eunomia (Esper) dawsoni (Barnes & McDunnough) Bog Fritillary 6-Jun 12-Jul
Boloria selene (Schiffermüller)5 atrocostalis (Huard) Silver-bordered Fritillary2   18-May 21-Sep
Boloria selene (Schiffermüller)5 myrina (Cramer) Silver-bordered Fritillary2   18-May 21-Sep
Boloria bellona (Fabricius) toddi (W. Holland) Meadow Fritillary 25-Apr 16-Sep
Boloria frigga (Thunberg) saga (Staudinger) Frigga Fritillary 11-Jun 24-Jun
Boloria chariclea (Schneider) grandis (W. Barnes & McDunnough) Purple Lesser Fritillary 3-Jul 20-Jul
Subfamily Nymphalinae   Checkerspots, Tortoiseshells, Commas, and Ladies  
Chlosyne nycteis (Doubleday)   Silvery Checkerspot 7-Jun 8-Jul
Chlosyne harrisii (Scudder) albimontana (Avinoff) Harris’ Checkerspot 29-May 4-Sep
Phyciodes tharos (Drury)   Pearl Crescent 5-May 11-Oct
Phyciodes cocyta (Cramer)   Northern Crescent 24-May 6-Oct
Euphydryas phaeton (Drury)   Baltimore Checkerspot 9-Jun 31-Jul
Junonia coenia Hübner   Common Buckeye 17-May 30-Oct
Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius)   Question Mark 11-Apr 9-Nov
Polygonia comma (Harris)   Eastern Comma 1-Apr 12-Oct
Polygonia satyrus (W. H. Edwards) neomarsyas dos Passos Satyr Comma 12-Jun 27-Jul
Polygonia faunus (W. H. Edwards)   Green Comma 4-Apr 17-Sep
Polygonia gracilis (Grote & Robinson)   Hoary Comma 20-May 9-Sep
Polygonia progne (Cramer)   Grey Comma 6-May 19-Oct
Nymphalis l-album (Esper) j-album (Boisduval & LeConte) Compton Tortoiseshell 28-Feb 2-Nov
Aglais milberti (Godart)   Milbert’s Tortoiseshell 17-Mar 19-Oct
Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus)   Mourning Cloak 2-Apr 25-Oct
Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) rubria (Fruhstorfer) Red Admiral 20-Apr 28-Oct
Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus)   Painted Lady 21-May 4-Oct
Vanessa virginiensis (Drury)   American Lady 28-Apr 2-Nov
Limenitis arthemis (Drury)6   White Admiral   16-May 1-Oct
Limenitis archippus (Cramer)   Viceroy 24-May 28-Sep
Subfamily Satyrinae   Satyrs and Arctics    
Lethe anthedon A. Clark borealis A. Clark Northern Pearly-Eye 25-Jun 7-Sep
Lethe eurydice (Linnaeus)   Eyed Brown 25-Jun 7-Aug
Lethe appalachia R. Chermock   Appalachian Brown 5-Jul 1-Sep
Megisto cymela (Cramer)   Little Wood Satyr 29-May 27-Aug
Coenonympha california Westwood inornata W. H. Edwards Inornate Ringlet 20-May 6-Oct
Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius)7 nephele (W. Kirby) Common Wood Nymph2 30-Jun 25-Sep
Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius)7 alope (Fabricius) Common Wood Nymph2 30-Jun 25-Sep
Oeneis jutta (Hübner) balder (Guerin-Meneville) Jutta Arctic 18-May 18-Jul
Oeneis polixenes (Fabricius) katahdin (Newcomb) Katahdin Arctic 23-Jun 27-Jul
  1. Thanks to Herb Wilson for designing the interactive phenology tool.
  2. The first and last flights dates and histograms have been merged for those cases when subspecies distinctions were not always determined or intermediate morphs were encountered.
  3. The Northern Azure (Celastrina lucia) subspecies serotina (Cherry Gall Azure) occurs in southern Maine with a broad blend zone through at least central Maine
  4. Celastrina near ladon (Cramer, 1780) - The New England Azure is possibly a subspecies of the Spring Azure, Celastrina ladon, or possibly a new undescribed species
  5. Bolaria selene - Two poorly differentiated subspecies occur in Maine; myrina (Cramer) in the southwest, and atrocostalis (Huard) in the north.  A broad blend zone occurs across central Maine.  
  6. Limenitis arthemis - The northern limit of the blend zone between the L.a. astyanax (Fabricius) (Red Spotted Purple) and L. arthemis occurs in southwestern Maine where some individuals may show reduced white banding on the wings and rare individuals may closely resemble the Red Spotted Purple phenotype.
  7. Cercyonis pegala - In southwestern Maine is alope (Fabricius), which has a well-developed yellowish to orange patch on the forewing. In northern Maine is nephele (Kirby), which lacks the forewing patch.   A broad blend zone occurs between these two subspecies in southern and coastal Maine as far east as Calais producing phenotypes of intermediate appearance.

* new species/subspecies added to the state list during the survey